Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease causing inflammation and narrowing of the airways.


  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Respiratory infections
  • Genetic factors


  • Shortness of breath
  • Chronic cough
  • Sputum production
  • Wheezing
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Fatigue

There is no cure for COPD but the progression and symptoms can be reduced by:

  • Quitting smoking in case of smokers
  • Medication such as bronchodilators to expand airways
  • Treatment of respiratory infections
  • Oxygen supplementation in case of low levels of oxygen in the blood
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation to counsel and teach exercises to manage the symptoms


  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid respiratory irritants and allergens